Newcastle University School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials
 

ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL

by: Mark J. Willis & Ming T. Tham

© Copyright

CONTENTS

  SUMMARY
1. WHAT IS ADVANCED CONTROL?
2. PROCESS MODELS
 
2.1. Mechanistic Models
2.2. Black Box Models
2.3. Qualitative Models
2.4. Statistical Models
3. MODEL BASED (MODERN) AUTOMATIC CONTROL
 
3.1. PID Control
3.2. Predictive Constrained Control
3.3. Multivariable Control
3.4. Robust Control and the Internal Model Principle
3.5. Globally Linearising Control
4. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
 
4.1. Conventional SPC
4.2. Algorithmic SPC
4.3. Active SPC
5. DEALING WITH DATA PROBLEMS
 
5.1. Inferential Estimation
5.2. Data Conditioning and Validation
5.3. Data Analysis
6. HIGHER LEVEL OPERATIONS
 
6.1. Process Optimisation
6.2. Process Monitoring, Fault Detection, Location and Diagnosis
6.3. Process Supervision via Artificial Intelligence Techniques
7. ADVANCED CONTROL
8. CURRENT RESEARCH AND FUTURE TRENDS
  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  APPENDIX A:
Examples of reported applications
 
  Control
AC1 Reactors
AC2 Separation processes
AC3 Power systems
AC4 HVAC systems
  Optimisation
AO1 Reactors
AO2 Separation Processes
BIBLIOGRAPHY
  1. Anderson, J.S. (1992). 'Process control opportunities and benefits analysis'. Proc. Advanced Control for the Process Industries, Cambridge, 9-11th Sept.
  2. Astrom, K.J. and Hagglund, T. (1988). Automatic Tuning of PID Controllers. ISA.
  3. Bamberger, W. and Isermann, R. (1978). 'Adaptive on-line steady-state optimization of slow dynamic processes'. Automatica, Vol.14, pp.223-230.
  4. Bobrow, D.G. (1984). 'Qualitative reasoning about physical systems: an introduction'. Artificial Intelligence, Vol.21, pp.1-5.
  5. Bristol, E.H. (1977). 'Pattern recognition: an alternative to parameter identification in adaptive control', Automatica, Vol.13, pp.179-202.
  6. Brockett, R.W. (1976). 'Nonlinear systems and differential geometry', Proc. IEEE, Vol.64, No.1, pp.61-71.
  7. Brunet-Manquat, F., Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1993) 'Multi-Rate Adaptive Inferential Control', Submitted to Control'94
  8. Clarke, D. and Gawthrop, P.J. (1975). 'Self-tuning controller'. Proc. IEE, Vol.122, pp.929-934.
  9. Clarke, D., Mohtadi, C. and Tuffs, P.S. (1987). 'Generalised predictive control - part 1. The basic algorithm'. Automatica, Vol.23, No.2, pp.137-160.
  10. Cutler, C.R. and Ramaker, B.L. (1979). 'Dynamic matrix control - a computer control algorithm', Proc. AIChE 86th Meeting, April.
  11. Cybenko, G. (1989). 'Approximations by superpositions of a sigmoidal function', Math. Control Signal Systems, Vol.2, pp.303-314.
  12. Di Massimo, C., Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991). 'Bioprocess model building using artificial neural networks', Bioprocess Engineering, Vol.7, pp77-82.
  13. DiMassimo, C., Lant, P.A., Saunders, A., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1992). 'Bioprocess applications of model based estimation techniques'. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., Vol.53, pp265-277.
  14. DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992) 'Enhancing industrial bioprocess monitoring through artificial neural networks', ICCAFT 5 / IFAC BIO 2, Keystone, Colorado.
  15. DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1992). 'Towards improved penicillin fermentation via artificial neural networks'. Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol.16, No.4, pp283-291.
  16. Edgar, T.F. and Himmelblau, D. (1989). Optimization of Chemical Processes. McGraw-Hill.
  17. Efstathiou, J. (1986). 'Introduction to expert systems'. Journal A, Vol.27, No.2, pp.57-61.
  18. Efthimiadu, I. and Tham, M.T. (1990). 'Online statistical process control of continuous chemical processes', IEE Colloquium on 'Applied Statistical Process Control', Savoy Place, London, Nov.
  19. Efthimiadu, I. and Tham, M.T. (1991). 'Online statistical process control of chemical processes'. Proc. IEE Conf., CONTROL'91, Heriot-Watt University, March 25-28.
  20. Efthimiadu, I., Tham, M.T. and Willis, M.J. (1993). 'Engineering control and product quality assurance in the product industries'. Proc. Int. Conf. on Quality and It's Applications, Uni. Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept.
  21. Eykhoff, P. (1974). System Identification. John Wiley.
  22. Feray-Beaumont, S., Corea, R., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1992). 'Process modelling for intelligent control'. J. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol.5, pp.483-492.
  23. French, I., Cox, C., Willis, M.J. and Montague, G.A. (1992) 'Intelligent Tuning of PI Controllers for Bioprocess Applications', AIRTC, Netherlands.
  24. Glassey, J., Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J. and Morris, A.J. (1993) 'Considerations in Process Applications of Artifical Neural Networks', Colloquium on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic in Measurement and Control', Liverpool, March.
  25. Guilandoust, M.T., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1987). 'Adaptive inferential control'. Proc. IEE Pt.D, 134, 3, pp 171-179.
  26. Guilandoust, M.T., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1988). 'An adaptive estimation algorithm for inferential control'. I & EC Research, 27, pp 1658-1664.
  27. Hang, C.C., Lee, T.H. and Ho, W.K. (1993). Adaptive Control. ISA.
  28. Isermann, R. (1984). 'Process fault detection based on modeling and estimation methods - a survey'. Automatica, Vol.20, No.4, pp.387-304.
  29. Jones, R.W. and Tham, M.T. (1987). 'Multivariable adaptive control: a survey of methods and applications'. In: Multivariable Control for Industrial Applications. (ed. J. O'Reilly), Peter Peregrinus, pp280-298.
  30. Kaemmerer, W.F. and Christopherson, P.D. (1985). 'Using process models with expert systems to aid process control operators'. Proc. ACC'85, Boston, pp.892-897.
  31. Kambhampati, C., Tham, M.T., Montague, G.A. and Morris, A.J. (1992). 'Optimsing control of fermentation processes'. Proc. IEE, Pt. D, Vol.139, No.1, pp 60-66.
  32. Kravaris, C. and Kantor, J.C. (1990). 'Geometric methods for nonlinear process control - Parts 1 and 2'. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol.29, No.12, pp.2295-2323.
  33. Kresta, J.V., MacGregor, J.F. and Marlin, T.E. ,(1991). 'Multivariate statistical monitoring of process operating performance'. Can. J. Chem. Eng., Vol.69, No. 35.
  34. Lant, P.A., Tham, M.T. and Montague, G.A. (1993). 'On the applicability of adaptive bioprocess state estimators'. J. Bioeng. Biotech.
  35. Lant, P.A., Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1990) 'A Comparison of Adaptive Estimation with Neural based techniques for Bioprocess Application', Preprints, ACC, San Deigo, pp 2173-2178
  36. Latour, P.R. (1979a). 'On-line computer optimization 1: what it is and where to do it'. Hydrocarbon Processing, June, pp.73-82.
  37. Latour, P.R. (1979b). 'On-line computer optimization 2: benefits and implementation'. Hydorcarbon Processing, July, pp.219-223.
  38. Lippmann, R.P. (1987). 'An introduction to computing with neural nets'. IEEE ASSP Magazine, April.
  39. MacGregor, J.F., (1988). 'Online statistical process control', Chem. Eng. Progress, Vol.21.
  40. Manchanda, S., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. (1991) 'An appraisal of Nonlinear Control philosophies for application to a Biochemical process', ACC, Boston, USA.
  41. McColm, E.J., Manchanda, S. and Tham, M.T. (1994). 'On the applicability of a nonlinear control strategy', Proc. IEE Conf. CONTROL'94, pp.1352-1357.
  42. McLellan, P.J., Harris, T.J. and Bacon, D.W. (1990). 'Error trajectory descriptions of nonlinear controller designs'. Chemical Engineering Sci., Vol.45, No.10, pp.3017-3034.
  43. Merry, M. (1983). 'APEX3: an expert system shell for fault diagnosis'. GEC J. of Research, Vol.1, No.1, pp.39-47.
  44. Montague, G.A., DiMassimo, C., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1990) 'Neural network modelling of a fermentation plant', Biotechnology Course, University of Edinburgh, March.
  45. Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992). 'Enhancing bioprocess operability with generic software sensors'. J. Biotechnology, 25, pp183-201.
  46. Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Lant, P.A. (1990). 'Estimating the immeasurable without mechanistic models'. Trends in Biotechnology, 8, 3, March, pp 82-83.
  47. Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T., Willis, M.J. and Morris, A.J. (1992) 'Predictive control of distillation columns using dynamic neural networks', IFAC Conf. DYCORD+'92, Uni. of Maryland, College Park., U.S.A.
  48. Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Di Massimo, C., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991) 'Application of neural networks in the control and modelling of industrial processes', IEE Neural Network Symposium, Poly. Central London., April.
  49. Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Morris, A.J., (1991) 'Dynamic modelling of industrial processes with artificial neural networks.', 4th International Symposium. Neural Networks and Engineering Applications, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Oct.
  50. Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Willis, M.J. (1992) 'Neural Networks (Methodologies for Process Modelling and Control)', AIRTC, Netherlands.
  51. Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Willis, M.J. (1992) 'Artificial Neural Networks: Methodologies and Applications in Process Control', Neural Networks for Control and Systems, Eds. Warwick, K., Irwin, G.W. and Hunt, K.J.
  52. Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991) 'Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Control', IEE Control, 91', Edinburgh, March.
  53. Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T., Morris, A.J., (1991) 'Artificial neural networks in estimation and control', IEE Coll. on Principles and Applications of Sensor Data Fusion, London, Feb.
  54. Montague, G.A., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991) 'Artificial Neural Network Based Multivariable Predictive Control', 2nd Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks, 18-20 Nov., Bournemouth.
  55. Morari, M. and Zafiriou, E. (1989). Robust Process Control. Prentice-Hall.
  56. Parr, A. and Tham, M.T. (1992). 'An on-line technique for the validation and reconstruction of data'. Proc. IChemE Research Event, Manchester, Jan.
  57. Patton, R., Frank, P. and Clark, R. (1989). Fault Diagnosis is Dynamic Systems. Prentice Hall.
  58. Peel, C., Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992). 'A fast procedure for the training of neural networks'. J. Process Control, Vol.2, No.4.
  59. Peel, C., Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992). 'Application of a novel neural network training paradigm to industrial processes', Colloquium on the Application of Neural Networks to Modelling and Control', Liverpool, March.
  60. Peel, C., Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1993). 'Enhancing Neural Network Training', Application of Neural Networks to Modelling and Control, Eds. Page, G.F., Gomm, J.B. and Williams, D.
  61. Peel, C., Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T. and Manchanda, S. (1994). 'Globally linearising control using artificial neural networks', Proc. IEE Conf. CONTROL'94, pp.967-972.
  62. Rivas, C., Willis, M.J., Peel, C. and Hartmann, F. (1993) 'Dynamic Modelling using a New Multiple Neural Network Architecture', Submitted to Control'94.
  63. Rummelhart, D.E. and McCelland, J.L. (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing. MIT Press.
  64. Shaw, R. (1988). 'Reasoning in real time'. Control and Instrumentation, Sept.
  65. Smith, O.J.M. (1959). 'A controller to overcome dead time', ISA J., Vol.6, No.2, pp.28-32.
  66. South, M.C., Wetherill, B. and Tham, M.T. (1993). 'Hitch-hikers guide to genetic algorithms'. J. Appl. Statistics. Vol.20, No. 1.
  67. Tham, M.T., Morris, A.J. and Montague, G.A. (1989). 'Soft-sensing: a solution to the problem of measurement delays'. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 67, 6, pp 547-554.
  68. Tham, M.T. and Parr, A. (1994). 'Succeed at on-line validation and reconstruction of data'. Chemical Engineering Progress, May.
  69. Tham, M.T., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Lant, P.A. (1991a). 'Soft-sensors for process estimation and inferential control'. J. Process Control, Vol.1, pp3-14.
  70. Tham, M.T., Vagi, F., Morris, A.J. and Wood, R.K. (1991b). 'Multivariable and multirate self-tuning control: a distillation column case study'. Proc. IEE Pt.D. Vol.138, No.1, pp 9-24
  71. Tham, M.T., Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A. and Morris, A.J. (1991c) 'Adaptive Systems in Chemical Process Control', IFAC Conf., ITAC'91, Singapore, Jan.
  72. Tucker, W.T. (1989). 'Algorithmic statistical process control: integrating statistical process monitoring and engineering control', Proc. 3rd International Symposium on Control for Profit, Newcastle upon Tyne, England.
  73. Vagi, F., Tham, M.T., Morris, A.J. and Wood, R.K. (1991). 'Multivariable adaptive control of a binary distillation column'. Canadian J. of Chemical Engnrg., Vol.69, No.4, pp997-1009.
  74. Wang, Z., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (199x). ' Multilayer feedforward neural networks: a canonical form approximation of nonlinearity'. Int. J. Control, Vol.56, No.3, pp655-672.
  75. Warwick, K., Karam, K.Z. and Tham, M.T. (1987). 'Simplified parameter adaptive control'. Optimal Control Applications and Methods, 8.
  76. Warwick, K. and Tham, M.T. (1988). 'Emergencies and failsafe control'. Control and Instrumentation, June.
  77. Warwick, K. and Tham, M.T. [eds.] (1990). Fail-safe Control Systems - applications and emergency management. Chapman and Hall.
  78. Warwick, K. and Rees, D. [eds] (1988). Industrial Digital Control Systems. Peter Peregrinus.
  79. Weld, D.S. and deKleer, J. (1990). Readings in Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems. Morgan Kaufmann.
  80. Wetherill, G.B. and Brown, D.W. (1991). Statistical Process Control, Theory and Practice. Chapman and Hall, London, .
  81. Wilkinson, D.J., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1990). 'Multivariable constrained generalised predictive control (a comparison with QDMC)'. Proc. ACC, San Diego, May, pp1620-1625.
  82. Wilkinson, D.J., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1991a). 'High performance distillation - case study in constrained predictive control'. IFAC Symp. on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes, ADCHEM'91, Toulouse, France, Oct.
  83. Wilkinson, D.J., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991b). 'Multivariable constrained predictive control'. Proc. ACC'91, Boston, USA, June 26-28, pp1854-1859.
  84. Willis, M.J. (1991) 'Artificial Neural Networks in Process Engineering', Sensors for Food Quality Control, Campden Food and Drink Research Association, Newsletter No.4.
  85. Willis, M.J. (1992) 'Soft Sensors', IEE Coll. on Automation and Control in Food Processing, London, April.
  86. Willis, M.J., DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1990a). 'On the applicability of neural networks in chemical process control', AIChE Annual Meeting, Chicago.
  87. Willis, M.J., DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1990b). 'The use of Neural Networks in Process Engineering', Knowledge-Based Systems For Industrial Control, Eds. J. McGhee, M.J. Grimble, P. Mowforth, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., pp 123-142.
  88. Willis, M.J., DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991a) 'Inferential Measurement using Artificial Neural Networks', IFAC Conf., ITAC'91, Singapore, Jan.
  89. Willis, M.J., DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991b) 'Artificial neural network based predictive control', ADCHEM'91, Toulouse, France, Oct.
  90. Willis, M.J., DiMassimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991c) 'On neural networks in chemical process control', Proc. IEE, Pt D, 138, 3, pp 256-266.
  91. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Di Massimo, C., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1991d). 'Artificial neural networks and their application in process engineering', IEE Coll. on Neural Networks for systems: Principles and Applications, London, Jan.
  92. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., DiMassimo, C., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1991e) 'Nonlinear predictive control using optimisation techniques', Proc. ACC, Boston, USA., pp 2788-2793.
  93. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1991f) 'Nonlinear constrained predictive control', Proc. IFAC Conf., ITAC'91, Singapore, Jan.
  94. Willis, M.J., Tham, M.T., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. (1991g) 'A simple approach to the constrained optimisation of chemical reactors', Proc. ACC, Boston, June.
  95. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T., Morris, A.J. (1991h) 'Neural networks and process engineering problems - pragmatic solution or panacea?', Proc. ACC, Boston, USA., pp 2337-2342.
  96. Willis, M.J., Di Massimo, C., Montague, G.A., Tham, M.T. and Morris, A.J. (1992) 'Artificial neural networks in process estimation and control', Automatica, Vol.28, No.6, pp.1181-1187.
  97. Willis, M.J. and Montague, G.A. (1993) 'Auto-tuning PI(D) controllers with artificial neural networks', 12th World Congress of IFAC, Sydney Australia.
  98. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Di Massimo, C., Tham, M.T., Morris, A.J. (1992) 'Nonlinear predictive control using optimisation techniques', IChemE. Research Event, Jan., Manchester.
  99. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A. and Morris, A.J. (1992) 'Modelling of industrial processes using artificial neural networks', Computing and Control Engineering Journal, 3, 3, pp 113-117.
  100. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992) 'Artificial Neural Networks: A tool for the process engineer ?', Parallel processing in a control systems environment, Eds. Rogers, E. and Li, Y, Prentice Hall.
  101. Willis, M.J., Montague, G.A., Morris, A.J. and Tham, M.T. (1992) 'Artificial Neural Networks: A tool for the process engineer ?', IChemE. Research Event, Jan., Manchester.
  102. Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1989a). 'Design of a new self-tuning PID controller'. Preprints IChemE 16th Annual Research Meeting, Uni. Newcastle upon Tyne, April.
  103. Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1989b). 'A supervision scheme for fixed bed tubular reactors'. Preprints IFAC Symp. DYCORD+'89, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Aug. 21-23, pp.173-180.
  104. Willis, M.J. and Tham, M.T. (1990) 'A supervision scheme for fixed bed tubular reactors', IChemE Symposium, Dynamic Simulation in the Process Industries, UMIST, Manchester.
  105. Zadeh, L.A. (1965). 'Fuzzy sets'. Information and Control, Vol.8, pp.338-353.
  106. Zadeh, L.A. (1971). 'Quantitative fuzzy semantics', Information Sciences, Vol.3, pp.159-176.

First Previous Next Last

 

Copyright 1994-2009
Mark Willis and Ming Tham
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne
NE1 7RU, UK.

 
Please email any link problems or comments to ming.tham@ncl.ac.uk